SENSORS FOR SMART WATER & WASTE WATER MANAGEMENTS & MONITORING
Flow meters have proven excellent devices for measuring water flow, and now it is very easy to build a water management system using the renowned water flow sensor YF-S201. This sensor sits in line with the water line and contains a pinwheel sensor to measure how much water has moved through it. There is an integrated magnetic Hall-Effect sensor that outputs an electrical pulse with every revolution. The “YFS201 Hall Effect Water Flow Sensor” comes with three wires: Red/VCC (5-24V DC Input), Black/GND (0V) and Yellow/OUT (Pulse Output). By counting the pulses from the output of the sensor, we can easily calculate the water flow rate (in litre/hour – L/hr) using a suitable conversion formula.
The HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Module has 4 pins, Ground, VCC, Trig and Echo. The Ground and the VCC pins of the module needs to be connected to the Ground and the 5 volts pins on the Arduino Board respectively and the trig and echo pins to any Digital I/O pin on the Arduino Board. It emits an ultrasound at 40 000 Hz which travels through the air and if there is an object or obstacle on its path It will bounce back to the module. Considering the travel time and the speed of the sound you can calculate the distance. In order to generate the ultrasound you need to set the Trig on a High State for 10 µs. That will send out an 8 cycle sonic burst which will travel at the speed sound and it will be received in the Echo pin. The Echo pin will output the time in microseconds the sound wave traveled.
DS18B20 is 1-Wire digital temperature sensor from Maxim IC. Reports degrees in Celsius with 9 to 12-bit precision, from -55 to 125 (+/-0.5). Each sensor has a unique 64-Bit Serial number etched into it - allows for a huge number of sensors to be used on one data bus. Power supply range is 3.0V to 5.5V , Measures temperatures from –55°C to +125°C (–67°F to +257°F)±0.5°C accuracy from –10°C to +85°C, Thermometer resolution is user-selectable from 9 to 12 bits, Converts temperature to 12-bit digital word in 750ms (max.), User-definable nonvolatile (NV) alarm settings, Alarm search command identifies and addresses devices whose temperature is outside of programmed limits (temperature alarm condition), Applications include thermostatic controls, industrial systems, consumer products, thermometers, or any thermally sensitive system
The JSN-SR04T is an easy to use waterproof ultrasonic distance sensor with a range of 25 to 450 cm. If you are planning to build a water level measuring system or if you need to take other distance measurements outside, then this is the sensor you need! The sensor comes with a 2.5 m long cable that connects to a breakout board which controls the sensor and does all the processing of the signal. Note that only the sensor and the cable itself are waterproof, if you get water onto the breakout board, the sensor might stop working. An ultrasonic distance sensor works by sending out ultrasound waves. These ultrasound waves get reflected back by an object and the ultrasonic sensor detects them. By timing how much time passed between sending and receiving the sound waves, you can calculate the distance between the sensor and an object. Distance (cm) = Speed of sound (cm/µs) × Time (µs) / 2